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Expert(s) for : federalism
For many years now, my research has concerned public policy, with specific attention to social policy from a comparative perspective. My work has focused on regulatory models for the wage-employment relationship (the rapport salarial). In this I deal with the Canadian situation, while using a comparative approach to achieve the proper perspective.
I initially included social protection in studies of wage-employment relationships, but now treat it as a field of its own, as my analysis increasingly concentrates on the political treatment of the unemployed. This has been a strategic sphere of the recomposition of the social State since the 1980s and, even more, since the early 2000s. I first make comparisons within Canada (between the provinces) and with the United States, and then with Europe, dealing in terms of determinants of the transformation of social policy.
I have recently reversed the focus of my analysis. While I previously examined public intervention in its relationship to the jobless, I have now shifted my attention to analyzing the disadvantaged (poverty, exclusion and precarious work).
In addition, over the past thirty years, the transformation of Canadian federalism has also become an important topic for me. I address the constitutional question from the angle of the recomposition of the State as the structure for exercising power, studying it in terms of its relationship to social determinations (regional spaces, nationalities, identities), but also to the renewal of forms of expression of public policy, like the new public management. Once again, the field of social and tax policy is a major component.
Since 2008, I have been the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science.
For over 10 years now, I have been conducting research on public policy in Canada, but also in the United States and Europe. The study of public policy is particularly important since it is the most tangible result of government activities. Both elected and unelected political stakeholders are involved in creating this policy, and standards and institutions come into play. In short, public policy analysis is a window on the workings of democracy. Unlike the writings of political pundits and journalists, my analyses underscore the successes of North American and European democracies.
In my recent work, I have shown that disagreements among players in policy development do not have the negative effects ascribed to them by the media. Such conflicts do not lead to the blockages and suboptimal decisions predicted by political commentators and theoreticians. In fact the opposite is true, in that such disagreements sometimes lead to the development of innovative and more legitimate policies.
My current research is also aimed at demystifying the role of science in conflicts in developing public policy.
My research work examines social policy and federalism from a comparative perspective, as well as Canadian and Quebec politics and, on a wider scale, the differences between the left and right in our democracies. In particular I am interested in public policies that address the crux of these differences, i.e. income distribution between citizens (poverty-reduction policies, income security policies to provide a guaranteed income for all and labour market policies).
In the past few years, I have been concentrating on the poverty-reduction strategies adopted by member states of the European Union and provincial governments here in Canada. I have also been interested in recent transformations in Canadian federalism (fiscal imbalance, bilateral and multilateral agreements on labour market policies, provincial policies concerning Aboriginals). All this research is based on the concept that, in a democracy, politics serves primarily to pit distinct conceptions of social justice against one another.
- Politique canadienne et québécoise
- Peuples autochtones
Je m'intéresse aux transformations de la citoyenneté et au pluralisme identitaire dans les sociétés libérales, au fédéralisme, aux revendications des peuples autochtones et aux débats entourant le multiculturalisme et les politiques d'immigration.
Mes recherches actuelles portent sur la gouvernance des peuples autochtone au Canada et ailleurs, notamment sur la mise en oeuvre de la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones ainsi que sur es traités modernes comme nouvelle forme de fédéralisme. Je travaille aussi dans une perspective comparée sur les divers mécanismes permettant la participation des autochtones à l'économie d'extraction des ressources naturelles, notamment par le biais des processus de consultation et par la négociation d'ententes sur le partage des bénéfices liés à l'extraction des ressources.
Au-delà des questions autochtones, je m'intéresse aussi aux transformations de la citoyenneté multiculturelle au Canada, au Québec et en Europe. La diversification des sources d'immigration et l'émergence des enjeux liés à la place du religieux dans l'espace public ont amené plusieurs États à revoir leur approche en matière d'intégration des immigrants. Le langage de la cohésion sociale et de l'intégration civique remplace peu à peu celui de la reconnaissance et de la diversité. Les débats sur la laïcité et l'interculturalisme au Québec s'inscrivent notamment dans cette nouvelle réalité. Je cherche à comprendre l'impact de ces changements sur le régime de citoyenneté.